文章目录
  1. 1. Types
    1. 1.1. 基本数据类型
    2. 1.2. 复杂数据类型
  2. 2. Objects
  3. 3. Arrays
  4. 4. Strings
  5. 5. Functions
  6. 6. Properties
  7. 7. Variables
  8. 8. Hoisting
  9. 9. Conditional Expressions & Equality
  10. 10. Blocks
  11. 11. Comments
  12. 12. Whitespace
  13. 13. Commas(,)
  14. 14. Semicolons(;)
  15. 15. Type Casting & Coercion(强制)
  16. 16. Naming Conventions
  17. 17. Accessors
  18. 18. Contructors
  19. 19. Events
  20. 20. Modules
  21. 21. jQuery

JavaScript是一种直译式脚本语言,是一种动态类型、弱类型、基于原型的语言,内置支持类型。如何才能正确搞笑的使用它非常重要,下面就给大家介绍Github上的一个项目Airbnb–A mostly reasonable approach to JavaScript。

Types

基本数据类型

包括string,number,boolean,null,undefined. 访问基本数据类型就是直接操作它的值。

var foo = 1,
    bar = foo;

bar = 9;
console.log(foo, bar); // => 1, 9

复杂数据类型

包含object,array,function。访问复杂类型是操作其值的引用。

var foo = [1, 2],
    bar = foo;

bar[0] = 9;
console.log(foo[0], bar[0]); // => 9, 9

Objects

  • 使用literal syntax创建对象

    // bad
    var item = new Object();
    
    // good
    var item = {};
    
  • 不要使用保留字作为关键字,IE8中将不可用。

    // bad
    var superman = {
      default: { clark: 'kent' },
      private: true
    };
    
    // good
    var superman = {
      defaults: { clark: 'kent' },
      hidden: true
    };
    
  • 使用可读的同义词代替保留字

    // bad
    var superman = {
      class: 'alien'
    };
    
    // bad
    var superman = {
      klass: 'alien'
    };
    
    // good
    var superman = {
      type: 'alien'
    };
    

Arrays

  • 使用literal syntax创建数组

    // bad
    var items = new Array();
    
    // good
    var items = [];
    
  • 如果不知道数组长度,使用Array#push

    var someStack = [];
    
    // bad
    someStack[someStack.length] = 'abracadabra';
    
    // good
    someStack.push('abracadabra');
    
  • 使用Array#slice复制数组

    var len = items.length,
        itemsCopy = [],
        i;
    
    // bad
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
      itemsCopy[i] = items[i];
    }
    
    // good
    itemsCopy = items.slice();
    
  • To convert an array-like object to an array, use Array#slice.

    function trigger() {
      var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
      ...
    }
    

Strings

  • 使用单引号

    // bad
    var name = "Bob Parr";
    
    // good
    var name = 'Bob Parr';
    
    // bad
    var fullName = "Bob " + this.lastName;
    
    // good
    var fullName = 'Bob ' + this.lastName;
    
  • 超过80字符的字符串应该多行显示;但是过度使用,可能会影响性能。

    // bad
    var errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do with this, you would get nowhere fast.';
    
    // bad
    var errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because \
    of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do \
    with this, you would get nowhere \
    fast.';
    
    // good
    var errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because ' +
      'of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do ' +
      'with this, you would get nowhere fast.';
    
  • 通过程序语言创建一个字符串,使用Array#join而不是字符串连接‘+’,尤其是对于IE。

    var items,
        messages,
        length,
        i;
    
    messages = [{
      state: 'success',
      message: 'This one worked.'
    }, {
      state: 'success',
      message: 'This one worked as well.'
    }, {
      state: 'error',
      message: 'This one did not work.'
    }];
    
    length = messages.length;
    
    // bad
    function inbox(messages) {
      items = '<ul>';
    
      for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
        items += '<li>' + messages[i].message + '</li>';
      }
    
      return items + '</ul>';
    }
    
    // good
    function inbox(messages) {
      items = [];
    
      for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
        items[i] = messages[i].message;
      }
    
      return '<ul><li>' + items.join('</li><li>') + '</li></ul>';
    }
    

Functions

  • 函数表达式

    // anonymous function expression
    var anonymous = function() {
      return true;
    };
    
    // named function expression
    var named = function named() {
      return true;
    };
    
    // immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE)
    (function() {
      console.log('Welcome to the Internet. Please follow me.');
    })();
    
  • Never declare a function in a non-function block (if, while, etc). Assign the function to a variable instead. Browsers will allow you to do it, but they all interpret it differently, which is bad news bears.

    // bad
    if (currentUser) {
      function test() {
        console.log('Nope.');
      }
    }
    
    // good
    var test;
    if (currentUser) {
      test = function test() {
        console.log('Yup.');
      };
    }
    
  • 不要声明参数为arguments,this will take precedence over the arguments object that is given to every function scope.

    // bad
    function nope(name, options, arguments) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    function yup(name, options, args) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    

Properties

  • 使用.访问属性

    var luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28
    };
    
    // bad
    var isJedi = luke['jedi'];
    
    // good
    var isJedi = luke.jedi;
    
  • 使用[]和参数访问属性

    var luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28
    };
    
    function getProp(prop) {
      return luke[prop];
    }
    
    var isJedi = getProp('jedi');
    

Variables

  • 使用var来声明变量,不要污染全局变量命名空间。

    // bad
    superPower = new SuperPower();
    
    // good
    var superPower = new SuperPower();
    
  • 使用var声明多个变量,每个分别在新的一行。

    // bad
    var items = getItems();
    var goSportsTeam = true;
    var dragonball = 'z';
    
    // good
    var items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true,
        dragonball = 'z';
    
  • 最后声明未赋值的变量,这样比较利于使用之前赋过值的变量来给该变量赋值。

    // bad
    var i, len, dragonball,
        items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true;
    
    // bad
    var i, items = getItems(),
        dragonball,
        goSportsTeam = true,
        len;
    
    // good
    var items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true,
        dragonball,
        length,
        i;
    
  • Assign variables at the top of their scope. This helps avoid issues with variable declaration and assignment hoisting related issues.

    // bad
    function() {
      test();
      console.log('doing stuff..');
    
      //..other stuff..
    
      var name = getName();
    
      if (name === 'test') {
        return false;
      }
    
      return name;
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
      var name = getName();
    
      test();
      console.log('doing stuff..');
    
      //..other stuff..
    
      if (name === 'test') {
        return false;
      }
    
      return name;
    }
    
    // bad
    function() {
      var name = getName();
    
      if (!arguments.length) {
        return false;
      }
    
      return true;
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
      if (!arguments.length) {
        return false;
      }
    
      var name = getName();
    
      return true;
    }
    

Hoisting

  • 变量声明会提升到块的顶部,但是赋值不会。

    // we know this wouldn't work (assuming there
    // is no notDefined global variable)
    function example() {
      console.log(notDefined); // => throws a ReferenceError
    }
    
    // creating a variable declaration after you
    // reference the variable will work due to
    // variable hoisting. Note: the assignment
    // value of `true` is not hoisted.
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      var declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
    
    // The interpreter is hoisting the variable
    // declaration to the top of the scope.
    // Which means our example could be rewritten as:
    function example() {
      var declaredButNotAssigned;
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
    
  • 匿名函数可以提升他们的参数,但是不能提升函数赋值。

    function example() {
      console.log(anonymous); // => undefined
    
      anonymous(); // => TypeError anonymous is not a function
    
      var anonymous = function() {
        console.log('anonymous function expression');
      };
    }
    
  • Named function expressions hoist the variable name, not the function name or the function body

    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined
    
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function
    
      superPower(); // => ReferenceError superPower is not defined
    
      var named = function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      };
    }
    
    // the same is true when the function name
    // is the same as the variable name.
    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined
    
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function
    
      var named = function named() {
        console.log('named');
      }
    }
    
  • Function declarations hoist their name and the function body.

    function example() {
      superPower(); // => Flying
    
      function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      }
    }
    

Conditional Expressions & Equality

  • 使用===和!==替代==和!=
  • Conditional expressions are evaluated using coercion with the ToBoolean method and always follow these simple rules
Objects evaluate to true
Undefined evaluates to false
Null evaluates to false
Booleans evaluate to the value of the boolean
Numbers evaluate to false if +0, -0, or NaN, otherwise true
Strings evaluate to false if an empty string '', otherwise true

if ([0]) {
  // true
  // An array is an object, objects evaluate to true
}
  • Use shortcuts

    // bad
    if (name !== '') {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    if (name) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // bad
    if (collection.length > 0) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    if (collection.length) {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    

Blocks

  • 多行块使用花括号

    // bad
    if (test)
      return false;
    
    // good
    if (test) return false;
    
    // good
    if (test) {
      return false;
    }
    
    // bad
    function() { return false; }
    
    // good
    function() {
      return false;
    }
    

Comments

  • Use /* … / for multiline comments. Include a description, specify types and values for all parameters and return values.

    // bad
    // make() returns a new element
    // based on the passed in tag name
    //
    // @param <String> tag
    // @return <Element> element
    function make(tag) {
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      return element;
    }
    
    // good
    /**
     * make() returns a new element
     * based on the passed in tag name
     *
     * @param <String> tag
     * @return <Element> element
     */
    function make(tag) {
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      return element;
    }
    
  • Use // for single line comments. Place single line comments on a newline above the subject of the comment. Put an empty line before the comment.

    // bad
    var active = true;  // is current tab
    
    // good
    // is current tab
    var active = true;
    
    // bad
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      var type = this._type || 'no type';
    
      return type;
    }
    
    // good
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
    
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      var type = this._type || 'no type';
    
      return type;
    }
    
  • Prefixing your comments with FIXME or TODO helps other developers quickly understand if you’re pointing out a problem that needs to be revisited, or if you’re suggesting a solution to the problem that needs to be implemented. These are different than regular comments because they are actionable. The actions are FIXME – need to figure this out or TODO – need to implement.
  • Use // FIXME: to annotate problems

    function Calculator() {
    
      // FIXME: shouldn't use a global here
      total = 0;
    
      return this;
    }
    
  • Use // TODO: to annotate solutions to problems

    function Calculator() {
    
      // TODO: total should be configurable by an options param
      this.total = 0;
    
      return this;
    }
    

Whitespace

  • Use soft tabs set to 2 spaces

    // bad
    function() {
    ∙∙∙∙var name;
    }
    
    // bad
    function() {
    ∙var name;
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
    ∙∙var name;
    }
    
  • Place 1 space before the leading brace

    // bad
    function test(){
      console.log('test');
    }
    
    // good
    function test() {
      console.log('test');
    }
    
    // bad
    dog.set('attr',{
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
    });
    
    // good
    dog.set('attr', {
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
    });
    
  • Set off operators with spaces

    // bad
    var x=y+5;
    
    // good
    var x = y + 5;
    
  • End files with a single newline character

    // bad
    (function(global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);
    
    // bad
    (function(global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);↵
    ↵
    
    // good
    (function(global) {
      // ...stuff...
    })(this);↵
    
  • Use indentation when making long method chains.

    // bad
    $('#items').find('.selected').highlight().end().find('.open').updateCount();
    
    // good
    $('#items')
      .find('.selected')
        .highlight()
        .end()
      .find('.open')
        .updateCount();
    
    // bad
    var leds = stage.selectAll('.led').data(data).enter().append('svg:svg').class('led', true)
        .attr('width',  (radius + margin) * 2).append('svg:g')
        .attr('transform', 'translate(' + (radius + margin) + ',' + (radius + margin) + ')')
        .call(tron.led);
    
    // good
    var leds = stage.selectAll('.led')
        .data(data)
      .enter().append('svg:svg')
        .class('led', true)
        .attr('width',  (radius + margin) * 2)
      .append('svg:g')
        .attr('transform', 'translate(' + (radius + margin) + ',' + (radius + margin) + ')')
        .call(tron.led);
    

Commas(,)

  • Leading commas: Nope

    // bad
    var once
      , upon
      , aTime;
    
    // good
    var once,
        upon,
        aTime;
    
    // bad
    var hero = {
        firstName: 'Bob'
      , lastName: 'Parr'
      , heroName: 'Mr. Incredible'
      , superPower: 'strength'
    };
    
    // good
    var hero = {
      firstName: 'Bob',
      lastName: 'Parr',
      heroName: 'Mr. Incredible',
      superPower: 'strength'
    };
    
  • Additional trailing comma: Nope. This can cause problems with IE6/7 and IE9 if it’s in quirksmode. Also, in some implementations of ES3 would add length to an array if it had an additional trailing comma. This was clarified in ES5

    // bad
     var hero = {
       firstName: 'Kevin',
       lastName: 'Flynn',
     };
    
     var heroes = [
       'Batman',
       'Superman',
     ];
    
     // good
     var hero = {
       firstName: 'Kevin',
       lastName: 'Flynn'
     };
    
     var heroes = [
       'Batman',
       'Superman'
     ];
    

Semicolons(;)

  • Yup

    // bad
    (function() {
      var name = 'Skywalker'
      return name
    })()
    
    // good
    (function() {
      var name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    })();
    
    // good (guards against the function becoming an argument when two files with IIFEs are concatenated)
    ;(function() {
      var name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    })();
    

Type Casting & Coercion(强制)

  • Perform type coercion at the beginning of the statement.
  • Strings

    //  => this.reviewScore = 9;
    
    // bad
    var totalScore = this.reviewScore + '';
    
    // good
    var totalScore = '' + this.reviewScore;
    
    // bad
    var totalScore = '' + this.reviewScore + ' total score';
    
    // good
    var totalScore = this.reviewScore + ' total score';
    
  • Use parseInt for Numbers and always with a radix for type casting

    var inputValue = '4';
    
    // bad
    var val = new Number(inputValue);
    
    // bad
    var val = +inputValue;
    
    // bad
    var val = inputValue >> 0;
    
    // bad
    var val = parseInt(inputValue);
    
    // good
    var val = Number(inputValue);
    
    // good
    var val = parseInt(inputValue, 10);
    
  • If for whatever reason you are doing something wild and parseInt is your bottleneck and need to use Bitshift for performance reasons, leave a comment explaining why and what you’re doing

    // good
    /**
     * parseInt was the reason my code was slow.
     * Bitshifting the String to coerce it to a
     * Number made it a lot faster.
     */
    var val = inputValue >> 0;
    
  • Booleans

    var age = 0;
    
    // bad
    var hasAge = new Boolean(age);
    
    // good
    var hasAge = Boolean(age);
    
    // good
    var hasAge = !!age;
    

Naming Conventions

  • Avoid single letter names. Be descriptive with your naming

    // bad
    function q() {
      // ...stuff...
    }
    
    // good
    function query() {
      // ..stuff..
    }
    
  • Use camelCase when naming objects, functions, and instances

    // bad
    var OBJEcttsssss = {};
    var this_is_my_object = {};
    function c() {}
    var u = new user({
      name: 'Bob Parr'
    });
    
    // good
    var thisIsMyObject = {};
    function thisIsMyFunction() {}
    var user = new User({
      name: 'Bob Parr'
    });
    
  • Use PascalCase when naming constructors or classes

    // bad
    function user(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
    
    var bad = new user({
      name: 'nope'
    });
    
    // good
    function User(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
    
    var good = new User({
      name: 'yup'
    });
    
  • Use a leading underscore _ when naming private properties

    // bad
    this.__firstName__ = 'Panda';
    this.firstName_ = 'Panda';
    
    // good
    this._firstName = 'Panda';
    
  • When saving a reference to this use _this.

    // bad
    function() {
      var self = this;
      return function() {
        console.log(self);
      };
    }
    
    // bad
    function() {
      var that = this;
      return function() {
        console.log(that);
      };
    }
    
    // good
    function() {
      var _this = this;
      return function() {
        console.log(_this);
      };
    }
    
  • Name your functions. This is helpful for stack traces

    // bad
    var log = function(msg) {
      console.log(msg);
    };
    
    // good
    var log = function log(msg) {
      console.log(msg);
    };
    

Accessors

  • Accessor functions for properties are not required
  • If you do make accessor functions use getVal() and setVal(‘hello’)

    // bad
    dragon.age();
    
    // good
    dragon.getAge();
    
    // bad
    dragon.age(25);
    
    // good
    dragon.setAge(25);
    
  • If the property is a boolean, use isVal() or hasVal()

    // bad
    if (!dragon.age()) {
      return false;
    }
    
    // good
    if (!dragon.hasAge()) {
      return false;
    }
    
  • It’s okay to create get() and set() functions, but be consistent.

    function Jedi(options) {
      options || (options = {});
      var lightsaber = options.lightsaber || 'blue';
      this.set('lightsaber', lightsaber);
    }
    
    Jedi.prototype.set = function(key, val) {
      this[key] = val;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.get = function(key) {
      return this[key];
    };
    

Contructors

  • Assign methods to the prototype object, instead of overwriting the prototype with a new object. Overwriting the prototype makes inheritance impossible: by resetting the prototype you’ll overwrite the base!

    function Jedi() {
      console.log('new jedi');
    }
    
    // bad
    Jedi.prototype = {
      fight: function fight() {
        console.log('fighting');
      },
    
      block: function block() {
        console.log('blocking');
      }
    };
    
    // good
    Jedi.prototype.fight = function fight() {
      console.log('fighting');
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.block = function block() {
      console.log('blocking');
    };
    
  • Methods can return this to help with method chaining.

    // bad
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function() {
      this.jumping = true;
      return true;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function(height) {
      this.height = height;
    };
    
    var luke = new Jedi();
    luke.jump(); // => true
    luke.setHeight(20) // => undefined
    
    // good
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function() {
      this.jumping = true;
      return this;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function(height) {
      this.height = height;
      return this;
    };
    
    var luke = new Jedi();
    
    luke.jump()
      .setHeight(20);
    
  • It’s okay to write a custom toString() method, just make sure it works successfully and causes no side effects.

    function Jedi(options) {
      options || (options = {});
      this.name = options.name || 'no name';
    }
    
    Jedi.prototype.getName = function getName() {
      return this.name;
    };
    
    Jedi.prototype.toString = function toString() {
      return 'Jedi - ' + this.getName();
    };
    

Events

  • When attaching data payloads to events (whether DOM events or something more proprietary like Backbone events), pass a hash instead of a raw value. This allows a subsequent contributor to add more data to the event payload without finding and updating every handler for the event. For example, instead of:

    // bad
    $(this).trigger('listingUpdated', listing.id);
    
    ...
    
    $(this).on('listingUpdated', function(e, listingId) {
      // do something with listingId
    });
    

    prefer:

    // good
    $(this).trigger('listingUpdated', { listingId : listing.id });
    
    ...
    
    $(this).on('listingUpdated', function(e, data) {
      // do something with data.listingId
    });
    

    Modules

  • The module should start with a !. This ensures that if a malformed module forgets to include a final semicolon there aren’t errors in production when the scripts get concatenated. Explanation
  • The file should be named with camelCase, live in a folder with the same name, and match the name of the single export.
  • Add a method called noConflict() that sets the exported module to the previous version and returns this one.
  • Always declare ‘use strict’; at the top of the module.

    // fancyInput/fancyInput.js
    
    !function(global) {
      'use strict';
    
      var previousFancyInput = global.FancyInput;
    
      function FancyInput(options) {
        this.options = options || {};
      }
    
      FancyInput.noConflict = function noConflict() {
        global.FancyInput = previousFancyInput;
        return FancyInput;
      };
    
      global.FancyInput = FancyInput;
    }(this);
    

jQuery

  • jQuery变量$

    // bad
    var sidebar = $('.sidebar');
    
    // good
    var $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
    
  • 缓存jQuery查找

    // bad
    function setSidebar() {
      $('.sidebar').hide();
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      $('.sidebar').css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
    
    // good
    function setSidebar() {
      var $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
      $sidebar.hide();
    
      // ...stuff...
    
      $sidebar.css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
    
  • For DOM queries use Cascading $(‘.sidebar ul’) or parent > child $(‘.sidebar > ul’)
  • Use find with scoped jQuery object queries.

    // bad
    $('ul', '.sidebar').hide();
    
    // bad
    $('.sidebar').find('ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $('.sidebar ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $('.sidebar > ul').hide();
    
    // good
    $sidebar.find('ul').hide();
    
文章目录
  1. 1. Types
    1. 1.1. 基本数据类型
    2. 1.2. 复杂数据类型
  2. 2. Objects
  3. 3. Arrays
  4. 4. Strings
  5. 5. Functions
  6. 6. Properties
  7. 7. Variables
  8. 8. Hoisting
  9. 9. Conditional Expressions & Equality
  10. 10. Blocks
  11. 11. Comments
  12. 12. Whitespace
  13. 13. Commas(,)
  14. 14. Semicolons(;)
  15. 15. Type Casting & Coercion(强制)
  16. 16. Naming Conventions
  17. 17. Accessors
  18. 18. Contructors
  19. 19. Events
  20. 20. Modules
  21. 21. jQuery